COTTAGE FARM RANGERS F.C.
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A Nationwide F.A. Charter Standard Development Club.

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Nutrition in Sport

 

 For most athletes, being involved in sport means combining a busy lifestyle with the demands of training and competition.

When and what you eat and drink influences your ability to train and recover from training and matches. This is turn can affect your performance.

A healthy diet is one which supplies you with the optimum amount of energy and essential nutrients to keep you in good health and one which maximises your athletic performance.

It should provide the correct amounts of:

  • Carbohydrate
  • Protein
  • Fat
  • Vitamins and minerals
  • Fluids for hydration

The information in this section aims to cover the basic principles of ‘Nutrition for Sport’, converting the theory into practice and providing you with practical advice on the best foods, meals and drinks.Principles into PracticeDiet significantly influences athletic performance. An adequate diet, in terms of quantity and quality, before, during and after training and competition, will maximise performance. In the optimum diet for most sports, carbohydrate is likely to contribute about 60-70% of total energy intake, and protein about 12% with the remainder coming from fat."

LAUSANNE CONSENSUS STATEMENT, 1991
  • Your most important nutritional consideration is energy
  • The major nutrients carbohydrate, fat and protein can all provide energy
  • The main function of protein is for growth and repair of the body
  • Vitamins and minerals are essential for a variety of functions which contribute to your overall health
  • Energy Requirements and Body Weight"Total energy intake must be raised to meet the increased energy expended during training and maintenance of energy balance can be assessed by monitoring body weight, body composition and food intake. Where there is a need to reduce body weight this should be done gradually and not immediately before competition."

    LAUSANNE CONSENSUS STATEMENT, 1991

     

    Energy In = Energy out = Steady Body Weight

     

    (Food and drink) (Requirements and training)

    • The amount of energy needed will depend on intensity, frequency, duration and type of exercise undertaken
    • Total energy requirements will depend on age, sex and body weight
    • Young competitors will need additional energy for growth and development
    • ‘Making weight’ for competition must be completed gradually by following a sensible weight loss programme
    • FOOTBALL FOODThis section provides players with general guidelines on:

          1. What to eat/drink
          2. How much to eat/drink
          3. When to eat/drink

      By eating and drinking the right foods and fluids before, during and after each match/session, your performance and also that of the team will improve.1. General

      Carbohydrate should make up 60-70% of your diet (i.e. carbohydrate foods should make up more than half of each plate you eat)TABLE 1: GOOD SOURCES OF CARBOHYDRATE

      Starchy Carbohydrates (Generally eaten as meals)

      • Breakfast cereals – all types

      Bread – all types, including crumpets, bagels, naan, chappatis, potato cakes

      Pasta and noodles

      Potatoes – all varieties, including waffles, croquettes

      Rice

      Crispbreads, oatcakes, rice cakes, crackers

      Pizza bases

      Cereals – bulgar, cous cous, oatmeal, millet

      Beans, including baked beans, red kidney beans, blackeye beans, refried pinta beans

      Peas, lentils, pearl barley, chick peas

      Sweetcorn, popcorn

      Sugary Carbohydrates (Generally eaten as snacks)

      • Sweetened breakfast cereals, fruit and cereal bars
      • Biscuits e.g. Rich Tea, Digestive, Fig Rolls, Garibaldi, Jaffa Cakes
      • Cakes – scones, fruit cake, Bara Brith, fruit loaf, teacakes, fruit buns, Swiss roll, iced buns (these will also provide starchy carbohydrates)
      • Drop scones, pancakes, Welsh Cakes
      • Puddings – bread based puddings, fruit crumbles, mild puddings, jellies – with custard or ice-cream
      • Jam, marmalade, honey, chocolate spread, syrup, treacle
      • Sweetened soft drinks
      • Confectionery (e.g. chocolates, sweets)
      • Sugar – added to drinks, breakfast cereals etc.
      • Sports products (e.g. glucose polymer drinks, sports bars)

      Drink between 4-8 litres of fluid per day. This does not include alcohol or coffee/tea. (Never wait until you are thirsty before drinking. By this time you are already dehydrated.)2. Specific

      What to eat/drink in the days before a (Saturday) match:Thursday

      1. Eat/drink at least 50g of carbohydrate each hour during the two hours immediately after training (see Table 2 – Food Portions Containing 50g of Carbohydrate)
      2. A bowl of cereal before going to bed is also highly recommended

      Friday

      1. Breakfast – Eat a high carbohydrate breakfast e.g. A bowl of cereal, 3-4 pieces of toast and a glass of fruit juice
      2. Main Meal (Evening) – Eat a meal based around high carbohydrate foods (see Table 1 – Good Sources of Carbohydrates)
      3. It is important to drink more throughout the day (fruit juice, sports drinks etc.)
      4. Have a number (2-3) of high carbohydrate snacks (see Table 3 – Carbohydrate Snacks

      What to eat/drink on the day of a match:Saturday

      • Breakfast – Eat a high carbohydrate breakfast e.g. A bowl of cereal, 3-4 pieces of toast and a glass of fruit juice
      • Pre-Match Meal – Eat a carbohydrate meal (approximately 100g of carbohydrate) at least three hours before kick-off (see Table 2 – Food Portions Containing 50g of Carbohydrate)
      • Continue eating snacks high in carbohydrate up to an hour before the game (see Table 3 – Carbohydrate Snacks)
      • Drink plenty (at least 3 litres) of fluids (fruit juice, sport drinks) throughout the morning/early afternoon before the match
      • Drink approximately half a litre of fluid 30 minutes before the match

      What to drink during the match

      • Drink approximately half a litre of sports drink at half-time
      • Whenever possible during stoppages in the match take on fluids

      What to eat/drink after the match:

      • Drink at least a litre of sports drink immediately after the match
      • Make sure you get at least 100g of carbohydrate during the first two hours after the game. (This can easily be done with a combination of fluids and foods that are rich in carbohydrate)
      • Do not drink any alcohol during the first two hours after a match

       

       

      TABLE 2: FOOD PORTIONS CONTAINING 50g OF CARBOHYDRATE

      Food portions containing approximately 50g of carbohydrate

      Breakfast Cereals

      Approximate Weight

      Handy Measures

      Porridge (made with water and milk)

      500g

      20oz

      2 large bowls

      Weetabix

      75g

      3 oz

      3-4

      Shredded Wheat

      75g

      3oz

      3

      Shreddies

      75g

      3oz

      1 large bowl

      Branflakes

      75g

      3oz

      1 large bowl

      Cornflakes

      50g

      2oz

      1 large bowl

      Muesli (unsweetened)

      75g

      3oz

      1 medium bowl

      Cereal & Grains

           

      Pasta – white or wholewheat (cooked)

      225g

      9oz

      8 tablespoons

      Rice (cooked)

      175g

      7oz

      4 tablespoons

      Tinned spaghetti in tomato sauce

      400g

      16oz

      1 large can

      Noodles (uncooked)

      75g

      3oz

      1 layer

      Tinned ravioli

      500g

      20oz

      1 large can

      Pulses

           

      Baked beans

      325g

      13oz

      7 tablespoons

      Sweetcorn

      300g

      12oz

      10 tablespoons

      Red kidney beans

      300g

      12oz

      10 tablespoons

      Chickpeas

      275g

      11oz

      10 tablespoons

      Food portions containing approximately 50g of carbohydrate

      Potatoes

      Approximate Weight

      Handy Measures

      Boiled

      300g

      12oz

      5 egg sized

      Jacket

      175g

      7oz

      1 medium with skin

      Mashed

      325g

      13oz

      5 scoops

      Chipped

      175g

      7oz

      ¾ shop portion

      Roast

      200g

      8oz

      4 small

      Crisps

      100g

      4oz

      4 packets

      Low fat crisps

      75g

      3oz

      3 packets

      Bakery Products

           

      White Bread

      100g

      4oz

      3-4 slices

      Wholemeal bread

      125g

      5oz

      3-4 slices

      Rolls

      100g

      4oz

      2 soft/crusty

      Pitta bread

      100g

      4oz

      1 large

      Naan bread

      100g

      4oz

      2 mini naan

      Crumpets

      125g

      5oz

      3

      Currant buns/teacakes

      100g

      4oz

      1-2

      Fruit scones

      100g

      4oz

      2

      Malt loaf

      100g

      4oz

      2-3 slices

      Welsh cakes

      75g

      3oz

      3

      Bagels

      75g

      3oz

      1

      Jam tarts

      75g

      3oz

      3 individual

      Swiss roll

      100g

      4oz

      3 slices

      Fruits

           

      Apples

      425g

      17oz

      4 medium

      Oranges (peeled)

      625g

      25oz

      4 medium

      Pears

      525g

      21oz

      3 medium

      Bananas

      225g

      9oz

      2 large

      Dried Apricots

      150g

      6oz

      20

      Dates (dried)

      100g

      4oz

      7

      Figs (dried)

      100g

      4oz

      5

      Raisins

      75g

      3oz

      3 tablespoons

      Grapes

      325g

      13oz

      60

      Peaches in juice

      500g

      20oz

      1 large can

      Pineapple in juice

      400g

      16oz

      1 large can

      Apricots in juice

      400g

      16oz

      1½ large cans

      Biscuits

           

      Plain Digestive

      75g

      3oz

      5

      Ginger Nuts

      75g

      3oz

      7

      Fig Rolls

      125g

      5oz

      4-5

      Food portions containing approximately 50g of carbohydrate

       

      Approximate Weight

      Handy Measures

      Jaffa Cakes

      75g

      3oz

      6

      Oatcakes

      75g

      3oz

      6

      Ryvita

      75g

      3oz

      9

      Crackers

      75g

      3oz

      10

      Rice cakes

      75g

      3oz

      10

      Dairy Foods

           

      Rice Pudding (low fat)

      325g

      13oz

      Almost a whole can

      Ice Cream

      225g

      9oz

      4 scoops

      Custard (low fat)

      425g

      17oz

      1 can

      Milk – whole, semi or skimmed

      1000ml

      40fl.oz

      2 pints

      Confectionery

           

      Milk or plain chocolate bar

      75g

      3oz

      1½ 50g bars

      Kit Kat

      75g

      3oz

      8 fingers

      Milky Way

      75g

      3oz

      1½ standard bars

      Mars Bar

      75g

      3oz

      1 standard bar

      Bounty

      100g

      4oz

      1½ standard bars

      Snickers

      100g

      4oz

      1½ standard bars

      Jelly Babies

      75g

      3oz

      1 medium packet

      Liquorice Allsorts

      75g

      3oz

      1 medium bag

      Fruit Pastilles

      75g

      3oz

      2 tubes

      Sugar/Preserves

           

      Table sugar – white or brown

      50g

      2oz

      12 level teaspoons

      Jam

      75g

      3oz

      9 level teaspoons

      Honey

      75g

      3oz

      9 level teaspoons

      Drinks

           

      Fruit juice

      550ml

      22fl.oz

      1 pint

      Ribena (diluted)

      400ml

      16fl.oz

      2 glasses

      Lemonade (not diet)

      Cola (not diet)

      Lucozade (Original)

      Isotonic sports drink

      800ml

      500ml

      250ml

      600ml

      32fl.oz

      20fl.oz

      10fl.oz

      24fl.oz

      2½ cans

      1½ cans

      1 glass

      2 cans

       

      TABLE 3: CARBOHYDRATE SNACKS

       

      Biscuits e.g. Jaffa Cakes, Plain, Digestive, Fig Rolls

      Cereal bars e.g. Kellogg's Nutria-Gain

      Sweets e.g. Wine Gums, Jelly Babies, Fruit Gums

      Popcorn

      Low fat crisps

      Sports drinks e.g. Isotar, Lucozade, Gatorade

      Fruit e.g. Apples, Bananas, Tinned Fruit

      Dried fruit e.g. Currants, Raisins, Figs, Apricots

      Crackers

      Bread rolls (with low fat filling)

      Fruit juices e.g. Orange juice

      Jelly

      Chocolate bar e.g. Mars Bar, Snickers

      Scone, muffin

      Low fat fruit yoghurt

      Toast with jam (a little butter/margarine)